Thursday, June 30, 2016

The Proclamation of 1764

 The Proclamation 
of 1764

Life in the 18th century was full of conflicts between the British and the Shawnee. During the French and Indian War, the Shawnee had fought alongside the French against the British. The Shawnee and French had been allies for a long time when the Seven Years War made it's way to the New World. The Native American tribes took different sides in the conflict supporting either the British or the French. After the French lost the war, the British took command of the French held territories and demanded all French citizens leave the colonies. Some of the French had married into Shawnee families. Unfortunately, this meant some of the Shawnee wives lost their husbands because they had married a Frenchman and could not come with their husband's to France.
The Shawnee had become so dependent upon European trade goods that they had no choice but to establish open trade with their enemies.  In 1763, King George III established the Proclamation of 1763. The Proclamation forbade colonists and governmental officials from crossing the Appalachian Divide. They could not enter into trade agreements with the native populations nor acquire land past the Treaty Line. Only traders who were certified by the government were allowed to trade with the native populations. 

While the idea of the Proclamation sounded good it actually caused many problems. The colonists, eager to expand the British empire westward, didn't fully support their king's proclamation. Some land speculators had portions of their land now identified as part of the Indian Reserve while some Native Americans were living east of the treaty line. Some settlers were already living west of the treaty line. 

Skirmishes between Native American groups and the colonists were inevitable. Pontiac's Rebellion (1763 - 1765) was a series of conflicts occurring between the two groups under the decisive leadership of the Ottawa Chief Pontiac. 

Pontiac's Rebellion officially ended when Chief Pontiac signed a peace treaty with the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Northern District, Sir William Johnson at Fort Ontario.  

Wednesday, June 29, 2016

#ExpressYourself: Shawnee Women's Fashion

Welcome back to the Express Yourself weekly blog meme. Can you believe it's the last week of June already? It seems the summer is flying by so fast!

This week I was asked to write about a fashion trend I would like to see come into style. I'm not really much into fashion. So I thought I would put a spin on the topic and write about Shawnee fashion of the 18th century.


Colonial woman of the 18th century thought the manner in which Shawnee women dressed was scandalous. It is incorrect to believe all Shawnee wore leather during the 18th century. Leather and fur were traded with the British for European goods that the tribe needed in order to survive. If they used all the leather and skins it would be like us wearing money as our clothes. Yet, there were times in their lives that they did use leather and fur in their attire but by the 18th century it was very rare to do so. 

The native dress of the Shawnee woman was meant to allow the women the freedom of movement they would need for her chores and whenever they had to walk long distances between villages. 

The picture to the left shows a re-enactor in a Shawnee outfit of the 18th century. Shawnee women and men wore calico shirts. These shirts came in different colors, depending upon the dye that was available to them. The design was a man's trade shirt. Sometimes the Shawnee would create designs on their shirts. The shirt was loose fitting so the woman could move freely. In the 19th century, the Shawnee would add a ruffle around the collar. 

Women wore wool wraparound skirts that were tied in the front. The Shawnee were known for their beautiful ribbon work. During the 18th century, the ribbon pattern on the skirts were simple, such as the one shown here. This would change in the 19th century to more elaborate forms. 

Beneath the skirt, women would wear wool leggings, just as the men did. During the warm months, women didn't always wear their leggings. 

Every tribe wore different designs on their moccasins. The Shawnee, who were more militant than all the Ohio tribes, didn't wear elaborate beadwork on their moccasins during the 18th century. The Shawnee moccasin covered the entire shin and had fringes on the sides, such as these.  

During the 19th century, the moccasins became shorter and had more elaborate beadwork. 

A Shawnee woman would wear plain clothes on a daily basis. She would dress in her formal, more elaborately decorated attire at festivals, gatherings and when on diplomatic missions. The re-enactor in the picture at the top of the page is dressed in a Shawnee woman's formal attire. Anytime a re-enactor is dressed as a Native American they are displaying formal attire not day to day clothes because in historical times a gathering would be a special occasion. 

Women typically wore beaded necklaces that they made or traded with other tribes. 

The Shawnee had been mining salt and silver from Ohio long before any white person had ever set foot in Ohio. They closely kept secret the locations of the mines from outsiders. A select few men of each tribe were entrusted with the locations of the mines and were held responsible for acquiring the salt and silver needed for the tribe. Women wore silver stranded earrings that the men would make for them. 

Women also carried their belongings in a bag. They used a simple bag for daily work and a more elaborately decorated one for special occasions. 

Shawnee woman kept their hair long but arranged it differently depending on their personal use and if they were at a formal occasions.  Below is the painting "Shawnee Women" by Native American artist, Ruthe Blalock Jones. The painting shows Shawnee women in formal attire. Notice the differences in hair. Shawnee women wore ribbons in their hair when they were at formal events. The hairstyles without the ribbons were generally worn on a day to day basis. 

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

#ToBeShawnee: The Nephilim and Ohio's Moundbuilding culture

                           To Be Shawnee: 
                          The White Giants

The traditional customs and beliefs of the Shawnee people had set them apart from the other Ohio tribes. The Shawnee were very conservative people. They believed in a supreme being known as Monitoo. This supreme being created the female deity, Our Grandmother, then charged her with the creation of the world. The Shawnee believed they were not the first tribe she created but are her favorites.

The landscape of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana was drastically different in the 16th though the 18th centuries. It was a wild frontier with lush forests, abundant wildlife and large manmade mounds. Today we know the creators of the mounds as the Moundbuilders.

The Shawnee have always believed another tribe had built the mounds but they were nothing like the people we have associated with the mounds. Oral traditions speak of a tribe known as the Nephilim who looked drastically different than the Native Americans. The members of the tribe were giants who had pale skin, dark eyes, brown or red hair, and have facial hair. They are said to have roamed Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana.  The Shawnee claim the Nephilim warriors were fierce fighters. The tribe had been very skilled in the arts. In fact, the Shawnee aren't the only tribes to speak legends of these people. The Cherokee, Chippewa, Sandusky and other members of the Algonquin language groups spoke their own tales of these mighty people. All the tribes who spoke legends of these people agree that it was the Nephilim who had built the mounds from Ohio to Mississippi.

The Shawnee believed their ancestors had been in numerous bloody conflicts with the Nephilim who lived in Kentucky and West Virginia. The final confrontation between the Shawnee and Nephilim occurred at Sandy Island. Sandy Island is located within the Ohio River at the Falls of Ohio. The Shawnee warriors attached the Nephilim village there. The battle was bloody, fierce and long. In the end, the Shawnee eliminated the last remaining Nephilim tribe within North America. The spirits of the Nephilim were angry at the Shawnee for their destruction. Their ghosts roamed throughout Kentucky and West Virginia. If they came upon a Shawnee they would bring harm upon them as long as they camped in Kentucky and West Virginia. The fear of retaliation from their spirits was so great that the Shawnee refused to established their villages or camp in either Kentucky or West Virginia. In fact, the word Kentucky is Shawnee means "The River of Blood." They never wanted to forget that fateful day nor the tribe of giants who had been their most fiercest enemy. They had won. Their enemy had beeb defeated but at the cost of cursing the land with the ghosts of their enemy.

Monday, June 27, 2016

LTW: #ADHD and the Gifted Learner #education #gifted

Being someone who is high ability doesn't always come without consequences. The public image of the gifted learner is someone with a high IQ without any physical, mental or emotional problems. This viewpoint is a dangerous fantasy that has caused many problems for the gifted community. Gifted education is part of the special education system because the gifted learner needs a non-traditional way of learning new skills. Also, most gifted learners are actually considered to be twice exceptional. This means they are gifted but also have a learning or behavioral problem. This group of gifted students have a hard time in school because their special needs often mask their gifted abilities. Special accommodations and sometimes therapy need to made for these students in order for them to find academic success.

One of the most misunderstood behavioral issues possessed by the gifted population is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gifted students with ADHD often times do not exhibit their gifted behaviors the way society believes they should. The misunderstanding by educators of how all gifted students should behave has lead to many students with ADHD not being recommended for testing for inclusion in the gifted program. If these children are recommended they still have the hurdle of the program director admitting them into the program. Intellectual test scores of gifted students with ADHD often do not demonstrate their true higher intellectual abilities. This is because the ADHD will interfere with testing.

Gifted learners with ADHD exhibit behaviors that can hinder the social development with their intellectual peers. Gifted students without ADHD tend to be socially, emotionally and intellectually similar with others who are two to four years ahead of them in age. This group, though, has a hard time accepting gifted students with ADHD as their peers because they do not have the patience to deal with the emotional immaturity exhibited by the gifted student with ADHD. Gifted students with ADHD tend to lag two to three years behind in socially acceptable behaviors for their age range.

The gifted learner with ADHD knows they do not fit in with their intellectual peers. They feel rejected by their intellectual peers and will sometimes demonstrate their frustration through anger. It's very hard for gifted students with ADHD to find the right school for them to attend. Many times educators, parents, administrators and their peers do not fully understand how to help the student to succeed. Some families chose to pull their child our of the school system and homeschool them. The positive or negative effect an academic setting has upon a gifted student with ADHD depends upon the student's personality.

For more information on ADHD in the gifted learner check out these resources.

Sunday, June 26, 2016

#WhatsUpWith #AllisonBruning: Revisions and a Sneak Peak into Allison Bruning's Next Book!

Happy Sunday!

This week had been a week of revision for me as I prepare the manuscript of Lies and Deceit for editing. I've been making some adjustments to the story arc. I'm so excited about the new characters that I've added to the series. You can meet them before the book by reading the following posts. Just click on their names.

You can also learn more about the characters, locations and cultures on the Children of the Shawnee Pinterest board. 

(Children of the Shawnee: Book 2)!

Thick, rich blood cascaded down Little Owl’s swollen right arm. It burned as if someone had inserted a hot poker into his bicep from his elbow. He wanted to scream. Sweat poured down his face. How much longer could he contain the pain throbbing throughout his body? He didn’t know where he was. If he screamed surely his enemies would know of his location assuming they didn’t know already. The rich copper scent of blood mixed with own sweat hung in the area around him. He thought he smelled smoke from somewhere near him. But how could that be? The last moment he recalled had been dragging Blue Lark’s unconscious, severally beaten body towards their hunting camp hidden deep within the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. He didn’t have the strength to build a fire.
Was he even alive?

Saturday, June 25, 2016

Dear Diary: In the words of #Cherokee Chief Spring Frog

Dear Diary:
In the words of
Chief Spring Frog

Lies and Deceit 
(Children of the Shawnee: Book 2)

Dear Diary, 

Today is a great day mixed with bitter deceit. My youngest sister, Summer Rain, married the Shawnee warrior and younger brother of War Chief Little Owl. Her new husband's name is Blue Lark. It is not enough that we are Cherokee. If the problem of marrying one of our enemies were the mere problem the council would had no problem with denying the young man's request. But the situation is more complicated than a simple request. The Shawnee have never understood our ways. They believe men should have the final say in all manners. I am a chief but I only hold this position as long as the women support me. It is not the first time a Shawnee had married into our family. My eldest sister, Forest Water, married a Shawnee war chief when I was but a boy. Herein lies the problem. The brutal war chief demanded she change her name to Quiet Turkey and that her sons would never know she was Cherokee. She agreed. 

My brothers, sister and I have kept the secret of my nephews true identities a secret for the majority of their lives. Too many problems have arisen when Chief Kicking Horse's brother tries to rescue my sister and her children from him. There has been too much blood shed. I am only nine years older than the new Shawnee war chief, Chief Little Owl. I remember the day he was born. His father isn't Cheif Kicking Horse but the war chief's brother, Fox Fire. Yet, that is another secret I have had to kept.  I remember holding him during the naming ceremony. When he was a boy I taught him how to trap rabbits. We had always looked forward to seeing each other every winter. My sister has always been a good mother. I did not agree with her to keep the secret from Hawk Song, Little Owl and Blue Lark after the death of the Chief Kicking Horse. Yet, who am I to stand against a woman? 

When Blue Lark and Summer Rain married I kept my mouth shut. I only hope the creator doesn't allow a curse to befall against them because Summer Rain is his aunt. 

Chief Spring Frog

Friday, June 24, 2016

#CelebratetheSmallThings: School, @FlyLady, and #business

This has been a great week for my husband and I! It's been a week of revision, planning and moving forward towards the realization of our goals.

The first blessing was the ability to register my new company in Texas. In a previous blessings post, I told you that I am closing the publishing company that I own in Indiana and am opening a new company in Texas. This week I registered Big Bend Productions with the state of Texas. I also registered our four DBAs (Doing Business As) with Presidio County. I officially own - Marfa House (publishing), Castolon Studios (photography), Lost Mine Films (film) and Boquillas' Window (graphics). I'm not ready to launch my companies yet. I'm aiming to do so by this fall.

The other blessing I received this week was the Department of the Blind appointment my husband had. My husband is legally blind and has been having some issues with his eyesight. The Texas agency has agreed to not only pay for the medical services he may need but offer him some resources that will enhance his life. I'm so excited that we were able to start this journey.

Another blessing I received was that my husband started his motorcycle repair course at Penn Foster. He is also enrolled at Walden University pursuing a BBA in Small Business Administration. He wants to open a motorcycle repair shop in his hometown.

The last blessing I received this week was the opportunity to finally put together my routines and household journal. My life is so much more organized now. I have time to clean, write, work, etc. I've been using the Fly Lady technique for about five years now and absolutely love it.

It's been a very productive week!